After reading this blog, you will have an idea of recent updates from researchers around the world. This will help you make an evidence-based decision to choose CBD as a medical marijuana patient.
Cannabis can produce more than 400 compounds, including terpenes, CBD, and more than 100 plant substances. The most important plant substances are THC and CBD. CBD and THC-based products are used as medicines in several countries.
As a benefit for medical marijuana patients, cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the many cannabinoids in the hemp plant that does not produce the typical mental effects of marijuana. CBD is a promising and useful molecule that can help patients with a variety of clinical conditions. Controlled clinical trials with different neuropsychiatric populations, which are currently being studied, are expected to provide important answers shortly and help translate research results into clinical settings. Studies have been conducted to evaluate key developments in the development of experimental and clinical applications of cannabidiol-CBD in neuropsychiatry. Brazilian researchers conducted a random investigation into the curative use of CBD in the first place. The results were encouraging, as CBD has been shown to have real-time anxiolytic, antipsychotic, and neuroprotective properties. Additionally, basic and clinical research has been conducted on the effects of CBD on various other health problems, including its potential use for epilepsy, drug abuse, drug addiction, schizophrenia, and anxiety disorder. Social and post-traumatic stress, depression, bipolar disorder, sleep disorders, and Parkinson’s disease (Asth et al., 2019)
In another study, researchers claimed that generalized anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most common anxiety disorders associated with disability in social life. Cannabidiol (CBD), an important non-psychotropic compound from the Cannabis sativa plant, has been shown to have anxiolytic effects in humans and animals. This study was designed to compare the effects of public speaking tests in healthy controlled patients and patients with social anxiety disorders who received a single dose of CBD or placebo. The results showed that the use of CBD reduced anxiety. The placebo group showed higher levels of anxiety, cognitive decline, malaise, and alertness than the control group. The results showed significant increases when the placebo group was tested, which was virtually eliminated in the CBD group. The increase in anxiety induced by post-traumatic stress disorder in patients with a social anxiety disorder was reduced with the use of CBD, achieving a similar response to healthy control (Bergamaschi et al., 2011).
In another study, Leveque, F.M. and others have concluded that cannabidiol is a component of marihuana that does not activate cannabinoid receptors, but moderately inhibits the degradation of the endocannabinoid anandamide. had previously reported that elevated levels of anandamide in cerebrospinal fluid are inversely related to psychopathology. In addition, increased anandamide signaling reduced the incidence from primary psychosis to true psychosis, as well as delayed transmission. As part of our translational approach, they conducted a double-blind randomized clinical trial of cannabidiol and amisulpride, effective antipsychotics in severe schizophrenia, to assess the clinical relevance of their key findings. Both treatments were safe and clinically improved and the results showed that anandamide inhibition could contribute to the antipsychotic effects of cannabidiol, which could be a completely new mechanism in the treatment of schizophrenia (Leweke et al., 2012).
Zordi et al. A study of the effects of CBD in the treatment of psychosis in Parkinson’s disease. Their study found that treating Parkinson’s psychosis is a great challenge for clinicians and requires new pharmacological interventions. The antipsychotic and protective effects of CBD have already been studied. So their first study aimed to directly assess the efficacy, acceptability and safety of CBD in patients with Parkinson’s disease and psychopathic symptoms. It was an open pilot study. Six consecutive outpatients (four men and two women) with a diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease and psychosis of at least 3 months’ duration were enrolled in the study. All patients received a flexible dose of CBD (starting with an oral dose of 150 mg / day) for 4 weeks in addition to their usual treatment. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Psychiatric Brief Rating Scale and the Parkinson’s Disease Psychological Questionnaire, and showed a significant reduction on CBD treatment. CBD did not affect motor skills or the overall outcome of Parkinson’s disease. No side effects were observed during treatment. These preliminary data indicate that CBD may be an effective, safe, and well-tolerated treatment for Parkinson’s psychosis. (Zuardi et al., 2009)
In other research, the researchers provided an overview of the most important neurochemical mechanisms of action of plant cannabinoids, particularly THC and CBD. They also looked at the indications and side effects of the main cannabis preparations. In some countries, it is approved for use in refractory epileptic syndromes. CBD does not have the typical effects associated with THC and has anxiolytic and antipsychotic effects. Some of the more common side effects of CBD are diarrhea, drowsiness, nausea, and elevated transaminase levels (with concomitant use of antiepileptic medications). The mechanisms of action associated with the therapeutic and side effects of phytocannabinoids are not fully understood and do not only affect the endocannabinoid system. This “mixed” pharmacology may be responsible for its broad therapeutic spectrum of antiepileptic properties. (Crippa et al., 2018)
Another review looked at the potential role of medical marijuana in treating epilepsy. Another hemp plant, CBD, has been shown to stimulate antiepileptic effects in laboratory animals and patients with refractory epilepsy. (Dos Santos et al., 2021)
Among the many compounds in cannabis, (9), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the most promising therapeutic compounds. In addition to its calming effects known to cancer patients, hemp prevents the growth of cancer cells in the laboratory. Also, the main endocannabinoids (eCB), anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) cause the death of cancer cells. This study aimed to characterize cannabinoid elements and evaluate the effect of cannabinoids on the viability of endometrial cancer cells. Their data also supported the evaluation of CBD-rich extracts for a possible treatment of endometrial cancer, in particular, which has become resistant to conventional treatments. (Fonseca et al., 2018)
In another New Zealand study, researchers noted that New Zealand’s drug abuse regulations were changed to allow doctors to prescribe CBD. The therapeutic benefits of CBD and its safety remain uncertain. Their study aimed to analyze changes in self-reported quality of life, drug tolerance, and dose dependencies in patients who were prescribed CBD oil for different conditions at the same institution. In the study, all patients (n = 400) who applied for cannabis treatment in New Zealand between December 7, 2017 and December 7, 2018, had a CBD prescription test. Most CBD usage rates have been recorded. Results included measures of EuroQol quality of life at baseline and after 3 weeks of use, patient satisfaction with intercourse, frequency of side effects, and CBD dose levels for the patient. 400 patients were tested for CBD and received 397 prescriptions.
The observation was carried out in 253 patients (63.3%). Patients reported an average increase of 13.6 points, reflecting the overall quality of health. Patients with non-invasive pain and psychiatric symptoms improved patient-reported symptoms of pain, depression, and anxiety. There were no serious side effects. Positive side effects included improved sleep and appetite. No association was found between the dose of CBD and the benefit reported by the patient. The researchers concluded that CBD may have analgesic and anxiolytic properties in patients with mild chronic pain and psychological disorders such as anxiety. CBD is well tolerated, allowing you to experience mild chronic pain, mental health, neurological symptoms, and cancer. (Gulbransen et al., 2020)
Asth, L., Iglesias, L. P., De Oliveira, A. C., Moraes, M. F. D., & Moreira, F. A. (2019). Exploiting cannabinoid and vanilloid mechanisms for epilepsy treatment. Epilepsy Behav, 106832. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2019.106832
Bergamaschi, MM, Queiroz, RH, Chagas, MH, de Oliveira, DC, De Martinis, BS, Kapczinski, F., Quevedo, J., Roesler, R., Schröder, N., Nardi, AE, Martín-Santos, R., Hallak, JE, Zuardi, AW, & Crippa, JA (2011). Cannabidiol reduces the anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in treatment-naïve social phobia patients. Neuropsychopharmacology, 36 (6), 1219-1226. https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2011.6
Crippa, J. A., Guimarães, F. S., Campos, A. C., & Zuardi, A. W. (2018). Translational Investigation of the Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD): Toward a New Age. Frontiers in immunology, 9, 2009-2009. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02009
Dos Santos, R. G., Hallak, J. E. C., & Crippa, J. A. S. (2021). Neuropharmacological Effects of the Main Phytocannabinoids: A Narrative Review. Adv Exp Med Biol, 1264, 29-45. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-57369-0_3
Fonseca, B. M., Correia-da-Silva, G., & Teixeira, N. A. (2018). Cannabinoid-induced cell death in endometrial cancer cells: involvement of TRPV1 receptors in apoptosis. J Physiol Biochem, 74(2), 261-272. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13105-018-0611-7
Gulbransen, G., Xu, W., & Arroll, B. (2020). Cannabidiol prescription in clinical practice: an audit on the first 400 patients in New Zealand. BJGP open, 4(1), bjgpopen20X101010. https://doi.org/10.3399/bjgpopen20X101010
Leweke, F. M., Piomelli, D., Pahlisch, F., Muhl, D., Gerth, C. W., Hoyer, C., Klosterkötter, J., Hellmich, M., & Koethe, D. (2012). Cannabidiol enhances anandamide signaling and alleviates psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. Transl Psychiatry, 2(3), e94. https://doi.org/10.1038/tp.2012.15
Zuardi, A. W., Crippa, J. A., Hallak, J. E., Pinto, J. P., Chagas, M. H., Rodrigues, G. G., Dursun, S. M., & Tumas, V. (2009). Cannabidiol for the treatment of psychosis in Parkinson’s disease. J Psychopharmacol, 23(8), 979-983. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881108096519
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